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general information about solar LED lighting
Most solar LED lamps turn on and turn off automatically by sensing outdoor light using a light source. Solar streetlights are designed to work throughout the night. Many can stay lit for more than one night if the sun is not available for a couple of days. Solar LED lights installed in windy regions are generally equipped with flat panels to better cope with the winds. Latest designs use wireless technology and fuzzy control theory for battery management. The LED street lights using this technology can operate as a network with each unit, having the capability of performing on or off the network.
Solar powered street lights consist of 5 main parts:
The Solar panel is one of the most
important parts of solar street lights, as solar panel will convert solar energy into electricity. There are 2 types of solar panel: mono-crystalline and poly-crystalline.
Lighting Fixture: LED is usually used as lighting source of modern solar street light, as the LED will
provide much higher Lumens with lower energy consumption. The energy consumption of LED fixture is at least 50% lower than HPS fixture which is widely used as lighting source in
traditional street lights.
The rechargeable battery will store the electricity from solar panel during the day and provide energy to the fixture during night. The life cycle of the battery is very important to the lifetime of the light and the capacity of the battery will affect the backup days of the lights. There are usually 2 types of batteries: Gel Cell Deep Cycle Battery and Lead Acid Battery.
Charge Controller: The Controller is also very important to solar street light. A ccharge ontroller will usually controlles charging mode, start lighting, indensity of lighting and stop lighting. Modern controller are programmable, in order to decide the appropriate mode of charging, lighting and dimming.
Pole / Mast: Strong poles are necessary to all street lights, especially to solar street lights as there are components mounted on the top of the pole: fixtures, panels and some time even the batteries. Wind resistance should also be taken into consideration when choosing the pole.
Types: Solar street lights are generally classified into two types.
Advantages: Solar street lights are independent of the utility grid. Hence, the operation costs are minimized. Solar street lights require much less maintenance compared to conventional street lights. Since external wires are eliminated, risk of cable problems is minimized.
Solar powered supply to LED lamps is a non polluting source of lighting and can be easily used also at remote areas without connection to public electricity grid.